“Exposure” by Wilfred Owen

How is exposure represented in the poem? Exposure is generally thought of extreme temperatures affecting a person. In the poem itself, it mentions many times just how bad the icy cold temperature is. Here are all I could find:

“Our brains ache, in the merciless iced east winds that knife us…”
What this quote has to do with exposure is when it talks about the wind that was going through their body’s again and again. And as you might of experienced before, when the wind gets cold and fast enough, it is like little spikes are being stuck in your body. They would of been experiencing this on a day to day basis, so it is understandable that he would talk about the wind like this. And the brains aching is just what happens when said winds are constantly hitting your head.
“Watching, we hear the mad gusts tugging on the wire,”
These mad gusts are just another name for the wind, and the wire is probably the barbed wire just lying across the battlefield. They can hear because, well, you know wind chimes? It’s like that.
“The poignant misery of dawn begins to grow . . .”
This line tells us how dawn is beginning, and right from the beginning it is miserable. Misery of dawn can also mean that the weather in the morning is terrible, with clouds covering the sky. And then when it is growing, it could either be about the sun moving up into the sky, or the weather getting even worse.
“We only know war lasts, rain soaks, and clouds sag stormy.”
This line is talking about how the knowledge they posses is simple. That is, the war is long, probably gotten from the endless feeling people get when they can’t remember the beginning of what they are doing, and they can’t see when the end will come. The next two pieces of information are about the weather, and how bad it is for your health. By doing it like this, it makes it obvious that he does count the war itself as a pretty bad thing for your health and otherwise, but then he says two points on the weather, making sure the reader knows where he thinks the worst enemy lays.
“Dawn massing in the east her melancholy army Attacks once more in ranks on shivering ranks of grey,”
When he talks about the weather like this, he makes it sound like the weather is the enemy they are facing off against, and that the army this weather is made from are the clouds, each one grey.
“Less deadly than the air that shudders black with snow”
The line before this one is talking about how deadly bullets are, zipping across the battlefield, killing off many of them, but it continues on with this, talking about how the weather is even more deadly that the bullets. In particular this time round, is the snow that is falling all around. I guess as this is the first time this being mentioned, that it probably started snowing around about the time of writing this part of the poem.
“With sidelong flowing flakes that flock, pause, and renew,”

“Pale flakes with fingering stealth come feeling for our faces—”
“We cringe in holes, back on forgotten dreams, and stare, snow-dazed,”
“Deep into grassier ditches. So we drowse, sun-dozed,”
“Tonight, this frost will fasten on this mud and us, Shrivelling many hands, and puckering foreheads crisp.” 
“The burying-party, picks and shovels in shaking grasp, Pause over half-known faces. All their eyes are ice,” 

Here are 3 of the language techniques used in the poem:

  1. Personification “For hours the innocent mice rejoice:the house is theirs;”, “Dawn massing in the east her melancholy army.” Personification is used many times, as well as in this line. The reason this was added was because it makes it feel like everything that surrounds the soldiers have their own lives; their own power. By doing this, it makes it seem like their surroundings are human, easily capable of being the enemies of the soldiers. But the soldiers themselves are barely human, “Slowly our ghosts drag home:” This puts them at about the same level of reality. This affects our understanding by changing who we view as the enemy of the soldiers, while reaching into a large point of them poem. That the weather in this case was the enemy of the soldiers.
  2. Listing “But nothing happens.” Listing is used many times throughout the poem, which drives home the point the sentence is trying to make. In this case, the sentence is trying to drive home how “nothing happens” in the war. It makes sure the reader knows how the soldiers are just sitting there. Sometimes they die from the enemy. Sometimes they die from the weather. And yet, “nothing happens.” As far as the author is concerned, even though all these other things are happening around them, nothing is happening to the soldiers themselves. At least, they are doing nothing. This impacts our understanding of the text


“Anthem for Doomed Youth” by Owen Wilson.

From this poem we can figure out a bit more about the author himself. In the first paragraph, we can see that, they are in a battlefield; “Only the stuttering rifles”. He talks about the soldiers themselves as cattle”for these who die as cattle?”, doomed to die. He talks about the sounds and emotions the weapons being used; “Only the monstrous anger of the guns”, and then goes onto say how the soldiers won’t be able to hear any other sounds from outside the battlefield; “No prayers nor bells;”. We can take this to mean that he most likely saw some young people die in the war. And then realizing that these young people will never get to hear the sounds of normal life again. And so he would of wanted to try and get this out of his system, this idea that all these young people are dying, and how regrettable it all is.
The next paragraph describes the aftereffects of their deaths. That being the funerals, and the sadness everyone feels; “The pallor of girls’ brows”. Everyday being one where a funeral is held; “And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds”, and so everyday people just get sadder and sadder. This also tells everyone that too many people have died; wondering how you are supposed to mourn for them all; “What candles may be held to speed them all?”.
What we can take from all this is he has suffered through a war where everyone is dying, and their deaths mean nothing. Many emotions being in the battlefield, while only sadness is left in their own communities. So basically just a not-good experience, that he wants to point out to everyone, and just make sure everyone understands just how terrible that war is. 

What has been included.”Dulce et Decorum Est” Wilfred Owen

What images are presented in the text?
“Bent double,” This image gets the reader to see someone tired, kind of slouching from. About at that point of falling over yet still standing up. We can think this is from an earlier battle, leaving them exhausted and hurt. Or it could be about how they have been walking for quite a while, leaving them barely able to walk anymore. What it tells us is that they aren’t giving up yet, they don’t want to die, but feeling this way is difficult as they have been so close to death. The atmosphere generated from this is one of tiredness, and the want to just give up, and yet also one of determination, in the way that they haven’t given up.

“”As under a green sea,” this image gets the reader to see a large mass of green, surrounding everything. What the reader understands is that death is now surrounding them, there is no escape. The reader understands that the soldiers could end up dying, and knows the soldiers realize this too. This creates an idea that even after going through battles, getting injured, and still walking afterwards, death still comes after them. And after this, if anyone survives, their will to live will either be destroyed, or strengthened.

“If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood come gargling from froth corrupted lungs”
This image creates an idea of a person lying down in a carriage, while it trundle along. And as it moves, that person has blood start pooling up, with their chest and body writhing. What the reader understands from this is that death by that green gas is terrible. It leaves you in a state of certain death, with pain coursing through if you move even slightly. It also leaves you knowing that even after all this stuff has happened, they still won’t live behind their friend. Even if death is assured. This creates the sort of atmosphere that living is torture, and yet they still will live. Not that they particularly want to, they just don’t want to waste the lives of their comrades.

What specific vocabulary has been chosen to add meaning to the text?
“An ecstasy of fumbling” This word “ecstasy” makes the reader think that these soldiers are happy to finally be able to do something that can let them live for a while longer. It could also mean that when they are putting on the helmets, they aren’t really focusing on it, like their minds are in a different state and nearly completely unaware of what is happening. The atmosphere generated from this is one of being either happy to be able to do something, or a general feeling of “it doesn’t even matter anymore.” The reason this is included is so that the reader gains even more insight to how tired the soldiers are, and how difficult the fight had so far been.

“If in some smothering dreams” from the word smothering, the reader knows that what he is going to talk about isn’t a pleasant dream. Instead it would be more like a nightmare, one that completely wraps over a persons mind, and makes them fill the full force of the nightmare. Basically, they will be terrified. This tells the reader that what happens next is both serious and terrifying. By doing this, the reader also knows that this part can be described as dreamlike, while also having a good deal of reality.

“All want lame; all blind” What the reader gathers from this is that everyone is hurt, and everyone is tired. nobody can properly continue. This includes the author. Why this was included would be so as to get the reader to understand just how much hardship they have been through to leave them all injured so much. Everyone is losing the ability to live, and yet they continue. The atmosphere generated from this is one of death and not quite giving up.

Language techniques:

  1. Allusion:”Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori”. By including this in the poem, the very reason for the poem comes to light. That is, it isn’t sweet and fitting to die for ones country. By including this here, it sounds far better than just saying “It is wrong to think that dying for ones country is good.” The reason for this being the way in which people’s minds work. That is, people believe words that sound scientific, which is pretty much Latin, to be more real. Basically, saying it in Latin will convince people that what he says is the truth, while using English the entire time won’t create any special impact at all. It also reaches back into his past where he would of taught Latin. The impact on the readers understanding however is that now they won’t understand the true meaning of the poem unless they know where it comes from.
  2. Repetition:”All went lame; all blind” By using this in the poem, it will drag the reader more into the poem, while also setting up the scenery and attitude of the soldiers. With this one sentence, the reader understands that the soldiers ability to move and process what is happening around them is practically gone. Without this, the reader wouldn’t of understood just how bad the situation the soldiers were in when the gas bombs dropped, and might of gotten confused at the point of saying “An ecstasy of fumbling,” as it could’ve also had a happy feeling to it.
  3. Emotive language:”His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;” By using this in the poem, the author can help describe just how nasty the gas is. It affects the readers in the way of telling them that this soldier, fighting for you and your country, is looking about as good as a pile of sin filled sick. So it will create large amounts of the feeling horror in the reader. Without it there is still plenty more emotive language to describe the situation, but each sentence builds up on another to describe an image of how bad the soldier is looking.


“Dulce et decorum est” by Wilfred Owen

Who was Wilfred Owen? 
Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, was an English poet and soldier in world war one. He fought as as English soldier. On 4 June 1916, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant (on probation) in the Manchester Regiment.
He then went through a few traumatic experiences, which where basically him falling into a shell hole, getting blown up by a trench mortar, then laying nice to the blown up bodies of his fellow officers. After this, he is diagnosed as having neurasthenia or shell shock. A good part of all this is that he met another poet, who goes by the name Siegfried Sassoon. Basically, this guy was a good friend to him.
In the end, he died one week before the armistice. His mother learnt of his death on armistice day. So, not particularly lucky in this case.

Why he wrote the poem?
It seems he wrote the poems so as to talk about the war, and what it was like. His friend Siegfried Sassoon, had a great effect on his poetry, as he showed him what it could be like. He took the realism of Siegfried Sassoon, and his own romantic inclinations into his poems, creating some new kinds of poems. The reason the poem was written in the first place was to show how war isn’t glorious, or good, and in actual fact that no one will want to stay for long.
Oh, and as a form of catharsis, which is to get out emotions over the words you said. He was suffering from mental problems, and so by writing these poems he can release poems.
That and he saw this happen just the day before. So he might have wanted to let out his feelings of that day. Interestingly enough, this poem was for his mum, so it could have also been demanding that you shouldn’t of told anyone that war is a good thing. Which also could mean his mum told him that war is good. That and maybe he wanted to try and get a message out there to go against all the propaganda.

Where and when was it written?
The poem was written 

What does this poem mean to the readers?
It tells the reader

How is the poem interpreted?
We think of it like


It is yet to be finished, but I want other people to read my answers to the first two questions. I will probably finish it soon.




Macbeth Exercise.

Page 25. Act 1. Scene 5.

Identify two features of language, and explain how Shakespeare used these to convey his idea that Macbeth lacks the ambition to kill king Duncan.

In the text, Macbeth has told his wife, lady Macbeth about how he has been prophesied to be king. Here is a quote about how Lady Macbeth views this: “Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be what art promised.- Yet do I fear thy nature: It is too full of the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way.” This is a metaphor for how Lady Macbeth believes Macbeth to be too kind to others, and that he won’t realize the quickest way for him to be king. Because of this fear that Macbeth is too kind, she decides to motivate him herself. The metaphor is written with the “milk of human kindness” being how Macbeth is filled with the kindness and caring of humanity. It also refers to the fear she feels at the idea of him not becoming king soon. And the liquid milk, a thing only babies drink. Which means Lady Macbeth believes that Macbeth isn’t tough enough or strong to do this himself and needs help from someone else.
“That I may pour spirits in thine ear, And chastise with the valour of my tongue” is a metaphor for how Lady Macbeth plans to convince Macbeth on how killing King Duncan is a smart idea. The spirits she plans to pour into his ear are the ideas she is presenting to him; the ideas that the death of King Duncan will lead to only benefits. The valour of her tongue is the power of her speech, and how it will bend Macbeth to her way of thinking.
In both these cases, Shakespeare uses the idea of liquids to present a person’s personality. The first time we see this is with the milk, which is attached to the idea of Macbeth being too weak-minded and kind to do what is needed of him. The second one is the spirits being poured into his ears, which is referring to the ideas being presented to him, like a poison that will infect his mind. Both of these were metaphors, describing the character of Macbeth, and how Lady Macbeth views him.
By the end of the scene, Lady Macbeth and Macbeth are leaving to go talk to others, but Lady Macbeth has begun her plan to manipulate Macbeth into killing king Duncan, and to stop him from being so kind towards others. Macbeth disagrees with the plan, but it is already too late as he is too weak-willed to resist his wife for long. He leaves, with the promise that he will come back to the conversation later.

Quotes for MAcbeth I need to memorise. NOW!

My hands are of your colour; but I shame
To wear a heart so white.

”Unnatural deeds Do breed unnatural troubles: Infected minds to their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets.”

“We have scotched the snake, not killed it: She’ll close and be herself; whilst our poor malice remains in danger of her former tooth.”

 “vaulting ambition, which o’er-leaps itself and falls on the other-… How now! what news?”

Is this a dagger which I see before me,
The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee.
I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. 

“The mind I sway by, and the heart I bear, Shall never sag with doubt, nor shake with fear.”

“Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be what art promised.- Yet do I fear thy nature: It is too full of the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way.”

“That I may pour spirits in thine ear, And chastise with the valour of my tongue” 

Book report 6: “Paper Towns”

In the book “Paper Towns”, written by John Green, we learn about how actually doing what you want in life will lead to far more enjoyment overall. Also, don’t get too caught up in the little things, as that will only stop you from properly enjoying things. John shows this in the book by having a girl come and take the main character(Quentin) out on a fun little adventure one night, and through out it, she explains her way of life, and how she thinks. But that is only the beginning. After that, she suddenly leaves home without telling anyone. She left a series of clues that can be followed by someone who truly cares. And so Quentin, who just so happens to have fallen in love with this girl, decides to track her down. To do this, he has to change the very way in which he lives his life, and how he treats different aspects of it. He actually gets out there and has a fun time. Then he finally tracks her down, only to discover that she isn’t planning on coming back. And yet he makes the best out of an unfortunate situation, with a new mindset on life.

The reader understands this message as John makes certain to include multiple with interesting lives, while the Quentin has just one thing. Because of this, at no point do we see his friends not have an interesting, and fun-filled life. They each have nicknames, and things they are known for. But Quentin has nothing but an ‘ordinary’ life. Until the events of the story unfold. It changes everything for him, and shows him how you can have a fun time, and experience great things, no matter who you are, or what you did before. He goes on an adventure to hunt down the person he loves, and at the end learns that the end goal is great and all, but he should really enjoy the journey too. It’s all quite fun if you learn to look at it right.


Book report 5: “Made You Up”

In the book, “Made You Up”, written by Francesca Zappia, we learn that reality is a difficult thing to understand, and that everything around you could literally just be your imagination. Francesca shows this in the story by having the main character(Alex) be schizophrenic. That means she can’t tell the difference between reality, and her delusions. We get to experience her life as, for the first time, she goes to school. Alex meets boys, and girls, and other new people. Then she discovers a huge plot between a girl, her mother, and the principle. Alex then attempts to figure it all out. She gains friends while doing this, and a new understanding of everyone around her, particularly her sister. Then she discovers…none of it is real. The very way we are introduced into the story means that we don’t realise this until she does. And so the shock is quite great for her and us. Like realising she had completely misunderstood the plot. That her sister died 5 years ago, but her parents didn’t want to say so. Also, that boy she thought she imagined was real, but then she continues to think, and realises she might just be imagining that too. Also the fact that the girl’s mother had died years ago, and that the principal had in fact being making the girl do stuff she didn’t want to do. In the end, she goes to a mental hospital to seek help for her problems. And by the end of it, as it turns out…the boy was real, but by then we aren’t particularly trusting of her view of reality, and so it is left up to us, the reader, to decide if what she experienced was real, or not. 

The reader learns about the message the book tries to portray, by experiencing it in a way for themselves. Since we can only see the story unfold through the main character’s view of the world, we only ever know what she knows. So when Alex believes something to be real, then it is real. And when she says something isn’t real, then it isn’t real. But this reality we create is completely broken multiple times. By doing this, Francesca shows how reality really is, and how at any moment, it could turn out to be completely-false, or partially-false, or in fact, real when we believe it couldn’t be. And that understanding this reality for what it really is, is extremely difficult, and even impossible for some people.

Book report 4: “Ready Player 1”

In the book “Ready Player 1”, written by Ernest Cline, we learn about a few things. Like, don’t judge a person based on their appearance, or, always try as hard as possible if you want to achieve your dreams. Ernest shows this message to the reader through the use of many different people. Each one of them is different, but they all created a false avatar of them selves on the OASIS, a virtual reality game that is basically like another universe. Besides it being a way to escape their dystopian reality, when they enter the game they can create a new life image for themselves. This is really well shown when we see one of the main characters friends for the first time outside of the game. They are a white, straight, male inside the game. But outside it, they are a black, gay, female. This is an example of how different each person is, and that judging them in real life based on how they look would be incorrect. The other moral is shown due to the fact that for the last 5 years in this world, people have been hunting down the ultimate Easter egg, 200 billion dollars, and the ownership of the OASIS. The first to find it wins that. It is the main characters dream to win it, but is unlucky with how poor he is. Yet he continues to work hard to achieve his  dream of finally winning it, and proving himself to the world.

Ernest Cline keeps the story real, yet uses enough of the OASIS to keep people interested. He does this by having moments of reality, showing how bad the world has become, and how difficult it is to survive it. Then there is the fact that it also shows how greedy and overpowering other people can be, and how much of a challenge it is to go against these people. In the end, these people are defeated, with help from a large group of people, each one quite useful in their own way, proving that looks don’t mean anything. It also proves that the determination to continue with your dream, no matter how hard it gets, will allow you to succeed and defeat whatever is in your way.

Book report 3: “Lord of the flies”

In the book “Lord of the flies”, written by William Golding, we learn about how the base of human nature is evil and destructive, and how a collective society is the only reason humans don’t destroy themselves and the world around them. William shows this message throughout the story by having this group of males kids, all younger than 12, try to survive together on this lost island. It doesn’t go well. The kids very quickly begin working together, and making fire. This results in at least one death. Then the reader gets to watch as every single one of the kids begins to go crazy and give in to their animal desires. Only 1 kid(Piggy) on the entire island is apart from this, and that is only because he looks so different, and is the only smart one there. Just to push in the cruel desires of mankind, William has Piggy killed off, by a large boulder being pushed off a cliff onto his head. By the end of the book, the island is burning down, and their original leader is being hunted. Obviously humanity did not do a good job in Williams eyes.

The reader picks up on this message by the fact that all the symbols in the book relate to the idea of humanity being evil and destructive. For instance, the scar(A large area of land destroyed by the plane humans piloted), the conch(A shell that symbolized society, that was later destroyed, and many more). As the reader finishes the book, they are fully aware of the point of view that humanity is destructive and evil, and that society is the only thing that stops us from destroying everything.